Monthly Archives: September 2016

Tips For Designing Various Forms of Greeting Cards

6017790_f520Greeting cards are relatively small cards nicely designed with carefully written and decorative letters sometimes with an appropriate illustration. They are used to send kind regards to our loved ones. They are also used to express our affection and sympathy to work mates, friends and relatives. Moreover, they are used to send best wishes, comforting news, congratulatory messages to people that we cherish. Others are used to invite people to occasions and programs. They are very necessary when friends, relatives and workmates receive promotions, appointments, enstoolment/ enskinment, graduation, ordination, elections etc. The designs, colours and illustrations were chosen should reflect and suit the occasion.

Christmas Celebration

This is a greeting card is used to send Christmas wishes to our loved ones. The choice of colours should reflect the happy occasion of the birth of Jesus Christ. Such colours include white (holiness of Christ), blue (calmness and sereneness of the season), orange (festive, joyous occasion), yellow (amazing riches of God) and green (vitality and new birth). The suitable designs that can be used include Christmas bell, flowers, a picture of a newborn, angels, Christmas tree and lights etc.

Get well Soon (Recovery)

This greeting card is used to send comforting and strengthening messages to the sick or infirm ones. It is believed to spur them on and boost or increase their health status for the better. The appropriate choice of colours for this occasion include green (vitality and good health), black (strength), yellow (brightness that reflects hope in distress), brown (comfort), blue (gentleness and calmness that reflect perfect health of the body), pink (good health and life), and white (victory over sickness and weakness). Suitable designs include a formerly sick person who has recovered, flowers, a person in a sick mood, agile animals etc.


This greeting card is used to send kind wishes to a birthday celebrant. Since it’s a happy occasion, colours such as blue (love or affection), white (good luck), green (vitality), grey (wish of more years or old age), brown (friendship) and orange (festive mood and energy) are appropriate for the occasion. Suitable designs include candles, flowers, birthday cakes etc.


This greeting card is used to send success wishes to students who are about to write an examination or to go for promotion. Appropriate colours include white (success or victory), black (intelligence), purple (wisdom), green (good luck), and blue (security). Examples of suitable designs include stationery items such as books, pens, etc., a person studying, flowers etc.

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Formal and Informal Page Layouts Formats for Designing

A page layout is an art of arranging or organizing text and images (illustrations, symbols, photographs etc.) on a page or pages to create a desired and pleasing effect. A well-designed page attracts the reader’s attention and presents the material in an easy to read fashion. Modern page layout offers the Graphic Designer with many options that make his/her work very attractive, effective and unique.

i. Formal / Symmetrical layout:

This is a format that is divided into two equal parts to achieve balance. It is achieved when an imaginary vertical centre line divides the layout and each side of it contains an equal amount of copy text and illustrations. It expresses dignity and stability. The formatting “toolbar” on the computer has commands or operations which help designers in organizing their page layouts such as in typesetting their work according to specification. Examples are the Justified, Unjustified and Centered layouts.

• Justified: In this arrangement, all lines have the same length and are aligned to form a straight line at both left and right or flush left and right. Word spacing is adjusted so that each line fills the entire measure. It is the commonest format and is very easy to read. However, its demerit is that it contains a lot of hyphens.

• Unjustified: The lines of type in this format is either flushed left and rugged right or flushed right and rugged left. The flush left is common and easy to read but flush right is not popular and is difficult to read.

• Centered: Type lines in this arrangement appear rugged at both ends. The lines centered on an imaginary vertical line making it symmetrical. It is a good layout format for headlines and certificates.

ii. Informal Layout

It is also referred to as Asymmetrical Layout. This format has an informal balance. Each side contains unequal amounts of copy text and illustrations. Informal balance gives the artist the freedom in placing the different types and elements of design using personal opinion and taste. It is often difficult to read. Examples of the informal layout are contour, run-around and inclined layouts.

• Contour: In this style, each side contains unequal amounts of copy text and illustrations in an undulating form (move in a wavy pattern).

• Run-around: In this format, each side of the layout contains unequal amounts of copy text and illustrations in a circular form.

• Inclined: In this layout style, each side of the layout contains unequal amounts of copy text and illustrations which are slanted to either left or right (diagonal pattern).

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The Types of Creating Cartoon Drawings

Cartooning is an effective illustration tool that Graphic artists, as well as fashion designers, can utilize in the designing of visual communication products like magazines, posters, billboards etc.
There are basically five types of cartoon drawings. These are Gag, Comic Strip, Animated, Editorial and Illustrative cartoons. Each of the types has their distinct uses in the field of visual communication.

i) Gag cartoons

‘Gag’ literally means a ‘joke’. Gag cartoons are usually single-paneled cartoon that is used to create fun about people in general. They create humor by the use of overstatements. They are used as a means of entertainment. Sometimes, they are used to highlight and poke fun at the faults or mistakes of humans. The cartoons may be accompanied by a single-sentence caption which may be the spoken words of a character.

ii) Comic strip cartoons

This type of cartoon appears as regular features with known or established characters in newspapers. They are portrayed in series to illustrate or tell a story. Each strip includes a series of panels with the words of characters encased in a balloon. They are published together in one or two pages.

iii) Animated cartoons (Animation)

This is a short, computer drawn cartoons made to appear as if it is hand drawn. They are made in series to create the illusion of movement and action. They are used for cinematography and are produced on audio-video screens. To create animation, each successive drawing in a panel is made to slightly differ from the first one before it to portray the notion of movement.

iv) Editorial cartoons

This type of cartoon is made for newspaper publication. They appear on the editorial page as single drawings which are used to throw more light on the editorial comment of a newspaper. They may appear with or without captions. Many editorial cartoons called caricatures poke fun at famous people such as politicians, musicians, etc. A caricature is a cartoon drawing of someone that exaggerates their appearance or behavior in a humorous manner to create fun.

They may also support the main editorial of the day or they may deal with some other events in the news item for the day. The cartoon below illustrates or supports an editorial about female genital mutilation.

v) Illustrative cartoons

Illustrative cartoons portray specific ideas in a direct and simple manner. They help in explaining stories, teaching aids or advertisements. They explain further the text that accompanies them. Books used in schools usually have illustrative cartoons that assist in explaining the subject or content. The cartoon below is an illustrative cartoon advertising a product.

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A Description of Some Graphic Design Products

Graphic communication media such as calendars, postage stamps, pennants, buntings and flags are utilised in our daily activities as a people, society or nation. It is now a popular feature of ceremonies and events like weddings, festivals, Independence Day and others to design calendars, buntings to mark the occasion or event. Thus, graphic artists need to know how these products are like in the realms of art so that it will ease their pain when such a project is assigned or offered to them by instructors and clients.


A calendar is a well designed one-page or multiple paged paper pieces used to organize days for societal use. It usually has a chart showing a year divided into months, weeks and days.
Various institutions and associations have designed their own calendars which are mostly given to clients and other members of the general public as a way of broadcasting the activities of the institution. Calendars of this nature bear the name of the company, the logo and the popular trademark of the company. The arrangements of the months should be sequenced so that gleaning of information from it will be very easy. The colours used should be harmonious and the typography style must be legible. If an illustration couples the text, it shouldn’t be distractive neither should it be ambiguous. It must be descriptive of the activities of the company.

Postage Stamp

This is a carefully designed paper piece usually in small dimension that is affixed on a letter or document to be mailed as a proof of payment of the mail. The amount or fee is inscribed on it as well as the country of origin. Mostly, there are illustrations on postage stamps that depict the culture of the country of origin. For instance, a postage stamp from Ghana may depict pictures of interesting sites in Ghana such as the independence square, national flag, Kakum national park, picture of the present and past presidents, abundant natural resources in the country etc. The backs of postage stamps are glued so that it can be affixed on letters.

It is a miniature flag usually shaped like a triangle or pentagon with designed text, logo, emblem or symbol of a group or association. They have several functions such as identification, decoration, signaling, education and advertising. It is usually exchanged as a sign of greeting or as a sign of goodwill. It is offered to people as a souvenir item.


These are colourful small flags joined together with a string and hanged along streets during festive occasions or hanged along the interiors of church buildings during festive occasions such as Christmas, Easter, and Weddings etc. The colours of the flags must symbolically agree with the event. Sometimes, artists cleverly choose colours that harmonizes with the attire the couple holding the wedding feast would wear. This implies that, artists who are offered such projects must carefully think through and design the buntings so that the general appearance will be suitable for the occasion.


This is a decorative cloth with special colours, emblems or logos peculiar to a group, association, religious or political denomination or nation. The choice of colours, symbols or emblems do have symbolic or philosophical meanings that are linked to the ideologies, beliefs and values of the group, association or country.

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Flying Model Rocket Safety Tips

Model rocketry has a very good safety record, but, although they are sold as toys, they still need to be handled with care.

Here are some basic guidelines that you should be aware of if you are thinking of buying a child a model rocket.

Recommended Minimum Age

The recommended minimum age for flying model rocket kits is 10 years old, and it is also recommended that an adult be present for a rocket launch if the child is under 12 years old. However, there are some states with different rules. In California, New Jersey, Rhode Island and North Dakota, there are age restrictions on the purchase of rocket engines and there are some other restrictions on the use of model rockets. More details about these sate specific regulations can be found by following the link at the end of this article.

Treat Rockets with Respect

While model rockets may be classified as toys, they are not something that kids should be playing around with. The biggest danger is not from the rocket propellant itself, that only burns for a few seconds and it is a lot less flammable than model airplane fuel. The biggest danger is from being hit by a stray rocket that could be flying at 200 miles an hour or so. That’s why common sense precautions, like staying alert, standing well back and treating model rockets with respect are so important.

Read the National Association of Rocketry (NAR) safety code

Model Rocketry is self-regulated in the US and the main source of safety guidelines is the National Association of Rocketry (NAR) safety code. This lays down a standard code of conduct for the construction and the flying of model rockets and it is an excellent document for youngsters to read when they get their first model rocket.

Only Use Commercially Available Rocket Engines

One of the biggest causes of accidents in model rocketry is people trying to concoct their own propellant. Stick to commercially manufactured engines and commercially available rocket kits available from reputable manufacturers like Estes, unless you really know what you are doing. You should also only use the engines that are recommended by the manufacturer for any particular rocket.

Do Pre-Flight Checks

Even the best model rocket kits can develop flaws, especially after they have been flown more than once. Always give your rocket a final check over before you launch it. Make sure it is stable on the ground and it won’t fall over when the engine ignites, check for any loose parts, and make sure that the nose cone is not on too tight and the recovery system is not packed in too tightly.

Use an Appropriate Launch Site

Choose a launch site that is in an open area and is away from buildings, highways, power lines, and any low flying aircraft. Also check that there is no dry vegetation near the launch site that could be ignited by the engine. Wide open spaces are best for safety reasons and it will also make recovery much easier as well.

Launch Precautions

At a lunch you need to be aware of what other people are doing as well as following some basic rules yourself. When you are preparing the rocket for launch, make sure that no one else if playing around with the launch controller. Make sure that everyone is clear of the launch area and give a loud and clear countdown before launching.

Are Model Rockets Safe

Model rocketry is and exciting hobby and safe one. Like any hobby of this type, you need to follow common sense rules and not take any risks. In fact, model rocketry is far safer than some other hobbies that kids could take up and it’s educational too.

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